Symptoms of allergy occur primarily in interface organs that are particularly endowed with immunocompetent cell systems – B and T lymphocytes. These include the gastrointestinal tract, the skin and the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. According to studies, symptoms are predominantly seen in the skin (43% of cases), followed by respiratory tract (23%), gastrointestinal tract/gastrointestinal tract (21%), and circulatory system (12.5%).
- Allergic contact dermatitis or contact dermatitis (redness and swelling of the skin, itching, burning, development of small vesicles, scaling).
- Atopic eczema (neurodermatitis)/atopic dermatitis (flare-up).
- Exanthem (acute skin rash).
- Flush symptomatology, often associated with itching.
- Urticaria (hives)
- Angioedema (Quincke’s edema; skin and mucous membrane swelling).
- Acne (e.g., acne vulgaris)
- Bronchial asthma
- Coughing, to the point of gurgling
- Acute anaphylactic reaction at the respiratory tract.
- Swelling of the larynx, which can cause respiratory distress
- Sneezing, rhinorrhea (rhinorrhea: runny nose; running nose).
- Nasal congestion
- Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (symptomatic hypersensitivity reaction of the nose, inflammation of the nasal mucosa).
- Oral allergy syndrome – tingling/burning/swelling in the mouth area, swelling of the tongue, numbness and swelling of the lips.
- Contact urticaria of the oral mucosa (urticarial reaction (hives) after contact with an agent; oral allergy syndrome); occurs immediately on contact with the allergenic food or may occur with a latency of up to two hours after ingestion of the food (most common clinical manifestation of food allergy in adult patients)
- Angioedema (swelling of the mucous membranes) (less common).
- Nausea (nausea)
- Diarrhea (diarrhea)
- Constipation (constipation)
- Esophageal spasm (motility disorder of the esophagus), colic, acute gastritis (gastritis).
- Abdominal pain, flatulence/flatulence (meteorism* ).
- Systematic anaphylaxis (acute general reaction, often severe).
- Burning or itching, watery eyes.
- Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva)
- Retention of excretory body fluids, general swelling.
- Exhaustion, concentration and memory problems, headaches, migraines.
- Repeated colds, sinus and inner ear problems.
- Shock-like symptoms
- Behavioral abnormalities
- Weight loss, failure to thrive
Anaphylactic shock represents the most severe form of allergic reaction, which can even lead to death. See this under “anaphylaxis” (anaphylactic shock).
The severity of clinical symptoms depends on quite a few factors:
- Degree of sensitization
- Degree of effectiveness of allergens
- Frequency of allergen exposure
- Degree of processing of the food
- Summation effects in multiple sensitization and in group sensitization.
- Individual factors, such as hormones, psyche, infections and others.
- Persistent diaper rash (>1 month of age), often accompanied by diarrhea (diarrhea), may indicate food allergy (as yet undetected).