Women's Interests

Abortion types, causes, pills, procedure and side effects For Women

One of the most difficult and painful decisions a woman or a couple has to make in life is choosing an abortions. Abortion is a term used for the medical termination of pregnancy, which can be performed medically or surgically. The method of abortion that must be followed and the safety depends on the three months of pregnancy in which the procedure is performed. The earlier the procedure can be performed, the less complex it is.

In most cases the abortion procedure is safe but is usually accompanied by some side effects such as heavy bleeding, pelvic cramps, nausea, and vomiting. However, if you notice more serious symptoms such as excessive bleeding, fever, and ultimate pain, you must tell your gynecologist immediately.

Abortion does not affect a woman’s future pregnancy or fertility, and therefore, as long as it is performed under the supervision of a trained gynecologist, it is not at all an unsafe option to choose.

In most cases the abortions procedure is safe but is usually accompanied by some side effects such as heavy bleeding, pelvic cramps, nausea, and vomiting. However, if you notice more serious symptoms such as excessive bleeding, fever, and ultimate pain, you must tell your gynecologist immediately.

Abortion does not affect a woman’s future pregnancy or fertility, and therefore, as long as it is performed under the supervision of a trained gynecologist, it is not at all an unsafe option to choose.

  1. What is abortion
  2. Types of abortion
  3. Time limit for abortion
  4. Safe and unsafe abortion
  5. Causes of abortion
  6. Abortion procedure
  7. Side effects of abortion
  8. Risks or complications of abortion
  9. Chances of getting pregnant after abortion

What is abortion

An abortion refers to the termination of the fetus. It is caused by the removal or expulsion of the fetus from the woman’s uterus. It occurs or is caused by the death of the fetus or unborn child.

  • Types of abortion
    Depending on whether the abortion is normal or not, there are two types:

Spontaneous or normal abortion or miscarriage

Having a spontaneous or normal abortion when the fetus or unborn child dies due to pregnancy complications. This is commonly described as miscarriage.


An abortion is an intentional removal of a baby from the womb that may be performed medically or surgically. It is performed in cases where there is a risk to the health, safety or survival of the expectant mother.

Time limit for abortion

According to the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, it is safe to terminate a pregnancy up to the second trimester (20 weeks). Having an abortion after this period carries an extremely high risk of complications, which can occur during or after the procedure.

Safe and unsafe abortion

As we mentioned above, any abortion is safe when it occurs 20 weeks before or up to the second-trimester of pregnancy. As the fetus progresses beyond the second trimester of pregnancy, the risks and complications associated with an abortion increase, making it extremely unsafe. Therefore, it is advised by doctors that a woman should decide to have an abortion before entering the third-trimester.

Safety of abortion is the place of health care where surgical or medical abortions are performed. Any procedure performed by a qualified physician or gynecologist who is authorized to prescribe abortion pills or perform surgical abortions is often safe and must be the only center for any abortion procedure. It must be ensured that the clinic follows all disinfection procedures to ensure protection against infections before conducting any abortion.

Causes of abortion

The different causes of a spontaneous and an abortion are listed below.

  • Abortion

An abortion is performed when the mother and doctor decide to do so. Therefore, it can involve a lot of personal, social, and medical reasons. According to a recent study conducted in 14 countries, the main causes of an abortion are:

  • Child spacing

As it is widely suggested that couples must maintain an interval of at least three years between two pregnancies, women choose abortion when they have recently given birth and are seeking an interval.

  • Unwanted pregnancies

Some women who become pregnant unintentionally usually choose abortions. Such pregnancies are usually caused by unprotected sex or the ineffectiveness of birth control pills. This is one of the most obvious reasons why women choose an abortion.

  • Financial problems

Raising a child brings with it many responsibilities. It is important to have a regular financial source that is sufficient to take on the responsibility of being a parent. That is why couples with financial problems choose abortion.

  • Professional decision

Pregnancy ultimately changes a woman’s personal and professional life. Sometimes it is difficult for him to change his professional goals and ambitions. Sometimes at a very important stage of life, a woman chooses abortion for further study or job or profession.

  • Problems with partner

Many couples often say that they have decided to conceive together because giving birth to a child is a two-way street and it is the responsibility of both partners to be equally involved. In some cases where women have problems with their partners such as unhappy married life, disagreements about pregnancy, financial insecurity, or divorce, they are forced to resort to abortion.

  • Extremely young age

Girls who become pregnant at a very young age and do not have the physical or mental condition to continue a pregnancy or have a child often get abortion advice from their doctors.

  • Pregnancy before marriage

Many girls, especially in India, are not allowed to get pregnant outside of marriage or before marriage. There are huge social and religious restrictions centered on it. In cases where girls become pregnant before marriage, along with other emotional distress (or trauma) through which the girl has to go, abortion is forced. In some cultures, this is considered shameful and a sign of ‘bad character’.

  • Health risks

If maintaining a pregnancy threatens the health of the unborn child or the mother, doctors recommend choosing an abortion.

  • Influence of family or partners

In some unfortunate cases where the woman is influenced by her relatives, friends, or family, she chooses abortion. Therefore, it is advisable to always discuss pregnancy with a trained counselor or a gynecologist.

  • Wanting a boy

Rarely, it is a criminal offense committed in most Indian states and some Asian countries by people who prefer to have a son. This decision is usually made voluntarily without the consent of the mother or even the father.

Voluntary abortion

There are certain factors that can affect a woman’s health, such as:

  • Congenital or hereditary abnormalities

Parents who have a latent or unknown (hidden) hereditary abnormality can pass on these genes to the unborn child, which makes its survival unique.

  • Preventive factors

A miscarriage can also occur when the mother’s immune system begins to work against the fetus.

  • Abnormal frozen lumps

Thrombophilia is a disorder in which abnormal clots form in the placenta. As a result, the oxygen supply to the fetus is reduced and it is a cause of death.

  • Hormonal disorders

Some hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels), high levels of serum thyroid antibodies, and the absence of thyroid antibodies but an elevated serum (TSH) with thyroid stimulating hormone (synergistic) and psoriasis.

  • Defective fetal selection

If the fetus is defective or is less effective at implanting because it has a negligible quality, the fetus fails to grow normally, which can lead to miscarriage.

  • Lifestyle

Women who do not eat nutritious food, drink alcohol, smoke, exercise hard, do not follow proper hygiene, or have very little physical activity may be responsible for the fetus’s incomplete nutritional and immune needs, which can lead to its death.

  • Defective structure of the uterus

Impairments in the structure and function of the uterus can also lead to bad attachment, reduced nutrient supply, and less waste removal, leading to death after a while.

Abortion procedure

There are two methods by which an abortion is performed – medical and surgical. Both procedures are of different types for first trimester and second trimester pregnancies.

  • First trimester

Abortions performed within the first thirteen weeks of pregnancy are called first-trimester abortions. Most pregnancies are terminated during the first trimester as it is much safer than terminating at the second trimester.

  • Medical abortion

Any medical abortion involves taking the abortion pill prescribed by your doctor. These medications can be taken orally or placed in the vagina or both. This is done in most cases to observe the body’s immediate response to a clinic. However, you can also take these medicines at home as directed by your gynecologist.

  • Surgical abortion

Surgical termination of the fetus is performed by a procedure called suction-curettage. You may be given a local or general anesthesia, or sedative, to reduce your sensitivity to pain during the procedure. In this procedure, your cervix (birth canal) is enlarged by medication or by augmentation. When the cervix is ​​enlarged enough, a suction tube is inserted into the uterus through the vagina. The tube is then attached to a vacuum that helps to pull and detach the fetus or fetus from the uterine wall.

Once the procedure is complete, your doctor may prescribe some painkillers to take home. It is best to see your doctor at least once every two weeks for the procedure. This will help to determine if there are any residues left in the fetus after the procedure. It will also help identify any other side effects or infections.

  • Second trimester

When a pregnancy ends in thirteen to twenty weeks, it is known as a second-trimester abortions. Just like a first-trimester fetus, it can be operated on medically or surgically. Doctors say that surgical abortion has far fewer complications than medical abortion in any second-trimester surgery.

  • Medical abortion

In the second-trimester, any medical abortion is performed inside the doctor’s clinic. The doctor may tell you to take the abortion pill orally. Occasionally, vaginal pills or intravenous (intravenous) injections may be given. These drugs begin to show their effects twelve hours after application. The mechanism of action of these pills can be explained on the basis of the contraction of the uterine muscles which leads to the excretion of the fetus. Your doctor may prescribe some painkillers because a medical abortion in the second trimester can cause fatal seizures.

  • Surgical abortion

A procedure called dilation and evacuation is an alternative to surgery to terminate a second-trimester pregnancy. In this procedure, some medications may be given a day before the surgery, which helps to enlarge the cervix. On the day of surgery, the cervix is ​​enlarged using augmentation equipment. If necessary, local or general anesthesia is given to relieve the pain. A suction tube is then used to remove the fetus from the uterus.

Side effects of abortion

After having an abortion, you may experience some of the following symptoms:

  • Nausea and vomiting

It is commonly felt by women as a side effect of medical abortion using abortion pills.

  • Heavy bleeding

A massive hemorrhage occurs when the endometrium (uterine lining) contracts and the lining of the uterus is removed to remove the fetus. This can last up to two weeks.

  • Pelvic convulsions

Convulsions in your pelvic area, which are felt after an abortion, are sometimes more severe than what you normally feel during your menstrual cycle

Risks or complications of abortion

Most abortions that are performed in a healthcare center as mentioned above may have some side effects, but in a few cases, serious complications may also be felt. These include:

  • Embryonic residue

In some cases, complete separation of the fetus from the uterine membrane may not occur. This is known as incomplete abortion. In any of these cases, further treatment with medication or surgery may be needed.

  • Infection

Infection can occur in the event of a surgical abortion. Antibiotics and painkillers are recommended in these areas.

  • Organ damage

During the procedure, there may be damage to the cervix or uterus. If this happens, the doctor may recommend another surgery.

  • Excessive bleeding

If the bleeding does not stop within two weeks of medication or surgery, it can cause anemia. In this type of case, the woman needs a blood supply to restore her health.

Chances of getting pregnant after abortion

An abortion does not affect your chances of getting pregnant in the future. In fact, it is possible to conceive a short time after an abortion. However, it is advisable to consult with your gynecologist for the correct contraceptive method to prevent any unwanted pregnancies and miscarriages.

This is because if a recurrent miscarriage occurs, it can put you at a higher risk of having a miscarriage in the future. Therefore, a thorough check-up and cure of the underlying medical condition is essential to ensure a healthy full-term pregnancy.

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